INFORMATION FOR TIBET TOUR:
Tibet, largest and highest table-land or a plateau in this planet earth, one of the least accessible route in early years, at present due to large network of roads one can travel within Tibet taking any mode of transportation by air-train or overland drive either entering into main land China from respective countries.
Tibet remain as an independent country and a kingdom rules by various kings and monarch, past century during late 7th Mongolian invaded Tibet and replaced royals rulers appointing high priest Dalai Lama as head of the country.
A Mongolian word Dalai Lama which means ‘Ocean of Knowledge’ similarly Panchen Lama means ‘Jewel of Knowledge which is second to Dalai Lama with its throne in Tibet’s 2nd biggest city of Shigatse.
Since then Dalai Lama ruled Tibet as head of state till it was annexed with Republic of China in late 1950’ where Tibet at present known as Autonomous Region of China.
Tibet covers 471,900 sq. miles / 1,221, 700 sq.km and extends 2,600 k.m. from West to East and 1,300 k.m. North to South where Himalayan forms as barrier and a border with neighboring countries, like Nepal-North East-West of India (Sikkim-Ladakh and Arunchal Pradesh) including Bhutan as far to Myanmar.
Tibet a large country comparing with other countries it is double the size of California states of USA, 8 times bigger than England extending from 78° to 90° Longitude East and from 28° to 37° Latitude North.
Tibet with its vast landscapes with an average altitude of above 3,000 meters / 9,000 ft high reaching beyond 5,000 m where some villages located above 4,000 m high, with snow capped peaks ranging from high 5,500 m, 6,000 m, 7000 m to 8,848 m at the top of Mt. Everest.
Brief History of Tibet:
Tibet history goes back beyond Yarlung Empire, as per the legend and folk tales, Tibetan people originated from the union of a monkey and an ogress.
This mythical event took place within a cave called Mt. Gonpo-Ri a ridge overlooking historic Yarlung Valley near Tsedang town South of Lhasa east of Gongor International Airport of Tibet.
Historical viewpoint provided by authoritative Tang Annals of 10th Centaury Chinese text, which recorded that the Tibetans were derived from the Qiang (Ch’iang) tribes, a nomadic and pastoral people that lived on the steppes northwest of China. Prior mention of these tribes has surfaced as early as 200 BC.
From other reliable sources traces Tibetan history from late 6th century AD, Namri Songsten (570-619 AD) of Yarlung Valley was a chief who ruled part of the divided country.
After joining forces with rival factions, he began to exert control over much of Central Tibet and became a significant military force in Inner Asia.
He conquered several Qiang tribes on Chinese border which was known to Sui dynasty (581-617) as ‘Commander of 100,000 Warriors’.
Tibetan tradition consider him as 32nd king in a line that started with Nyatri Tsenpo, the mythical ruler who miraculously descended from the sky to Mt. Yala Shampo at the head of the Yarlung Valley (during the reign of Lhatotori, the 28th king, Buddhist scriptures fell from the sky, heralding the transmission of Buddhism throughout the country).
Namri Songtsen’s son, Songtsen Gampo (617-50 AD), was crowned king in 629. He continued to expand the empire and threatened China’s western border during the 3rd decade around 7th C.
To appease him, in 641, Emperor Taizong (r 626-49) of the Tang Dynasty gave him one of his daughters, Princess Wencheng, in marriage. Even before that, however,
Songtsen’s Gampo had subjugated part of Northern Nepal annexed with Bon-Po kingdom of Shangshung in West Tibet, marrying in 632 the Nepalese Princess (Brikuti).
She was the daughter of Anshuvarman, minster of King Shivadeva and until 621 de facto ruler of Nepal by 648 AD. Songtsen has also invaded northern India.
Songtsen Gampo first religious King (Chogyal), through marriage was influenced by Buddhism and it was he who founded Jokhang and Ramoche, the foremost temples of the land.
Two decades after the death of Songtsen Gampo, Trisong Detsen (742-97 AD) was the Second Religious King. A century after Songtsen Gampo, he ascended the Yarlung throne (755 AD), and over the following half-century, he further extended Tibetan military power, in 763 AD, his army actually occupied Changan (modern Xi’an), the Chinese capital, and for a short time supported a puppet emperor.
His most important contribution to Tibetan history was not territorial. He was immortalized for nurturing Buddhism. At the age of 21, Trisong Detsen invited some of the greatest Buddhists gurus of India and China to Tibet like Guru Padmasamava “Guru Ringboche’ who started the Nyinpa (Red Hat) sect of Buddhism, later Tsho Kapa established Gelugpa (Yellow Hat) sects in 11th C and followed by Kyigapa-Sakyapa sects.